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  Home > Linguistic and Cultural Areas > Languages by Linguistic Family

 

Language Family

 


Ethnologue Ref. refers to the SIL Ethnologue website, Ethnologue, Languages of the world and to the ISO/DIS 639-3 code.

AFRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Berber

Berber

Tamazight North, Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa C. Taine-Cheikh
 

Kabyle

Kabyle Algeria L. Bellahsene
 

Siwi

Siwi Egypt L. Souag
 

Zenaga

Zenaga Mauritania C. Taine-Cheikh
Chadic

Gabri

Tobanga Chad > Moyen-Chari J.-P. Caprile
  Gwendele Vame Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Hide

Hdi Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Hurza

Vame Cameroun > Nord > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Kapsiki

Psikye Cameroon > Nord > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Kotoko

Lagwan Cameroon > North V. de Colombel
 

Mada

Mada Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Mafa (North)

Mafa Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Magoumaz

Mafa Cameroon > North V. de Colombel
 

Mbay

Mbay Chad > Moïssala J.-P. Caprile
 

Mbreme

Vame Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Mefele

Mafa Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Mukulu

Mukulu Chad > Guéra J.-P. Caprile
 

Mora

Wandala Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Muktele

Matal Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Muyang

Muyang Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Podoko

Parkwa Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Sulede

Mafa Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Tumak

Tumak Chad > Moyen-Chari J.-P. Caprile
 

Uldeme

Wuzlam Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
 

Zulgo

Zulgo-Gemzek Cameroon > North > Mandara V. de Colombel
Semitic to up

Arabic

Arabic, Standard Arab World F. Quinsat,
C. Taine-Cheikh
 

Chadic Arabic

Arabic, Chadian Spoken Chad J.-P. Caprile
 

East Arabic

Arabic Middle East F. Quinsat
 

Hassaniyya

Hassaniyya Mauritania C. Taine-Cheikh
  Hebrew Hebrew Israel P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi
  Hebrew ( Biblic or Mishnik —) Hebrew, Ancient Israel P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi
 

Levant Arabic

Arabic, Standard Lebanon S. Naïm
 

Levant Arabic

Arabic, Standard Palestine S. Naïm
 

Maghrebin Arabic

Arabic Maghreb F. Quinsat,
C. Taine-Cheikh
 

Middle Arabic

Arabic Arab World C. Taine-Cheikh
  Neo-Aramaic (Northeastern —) Assyrian Neo-Aramic Israel, France P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi
 

Sureth (Eastern Neo-Aramaic)

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Syria S. Naïm
  Syriac (dialect of Middle Aramaic) Syriac Ancient Middle East P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi
  West Arabian Arabic West Arabian Arabic Saudi Arabia S. Naïm
 

Yemeni Arabic

Arabic, Sanaani Spoken Yemen > Sanaa S. Naïm
ALTAIC LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
 

Korean

Korean Korea I. Choi-Jonin, M. Coyaud
Japonic

Japanese

Japanese Japan M. Coyaud
A. Matsumoto
AUSTRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
 

Khasi
(Môn-Khmer)

Khasi India, Bengladesh A. Daladier
 

Lyngam
(Môn-Khmer)

Khasi India, Bengladesh A. Daladier
 

Pnar
(Môn-Khmer)

Pnar India, Bengladesh A. Daladier
 

War
(Môn-Khmer)

Khasi India, Bengladesh A. Daladier
 

Vietnamese

Vietnamese Vietnam A. Michaud
AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Oceania > New Caledonia

Ajië

Ajië New-Caledonia > Houaïlou J. Ogier-Guindo
 

Bwatoo

Bwatoo New-Caledonia > Voh-Koné J.-C. Rivierre
  Caac Caac New-Caledonia > Hoot ma Waap A. Cauchard
 

Cèmuhî

Cemuhî New-Caledonia > Touho J.-C. Rivierre

Drehu

Dehu New-Caledonia > Loyalty > Lifou C. Moyse-Faurie
 

Drubea

Dumbea New-Caledonia > Dumbéa J.-C. Rivierre
 

Fwâi

Fwâi New-Caledonia > Hienghene F. Ozanne-Rivierre
 

Hamea

Hamea New-Caledonia > East Coast C. Moyse-Faurie
 

Iaai

Iaai New-Caledonia > Loyalty > Ouvea A.-L. Dotte, I. Leblic,
C. Moyse-Faurie
F. Ozanne-Rivierre
 

Jawe

Jawe New-Caledonia F. Ozanne-Rivierre
 

Kwényïï

Numee New-Caledonia > Île des Pins I. Leblic,
J.-C. Rivierre
 

Nêlêmwa - Nixumwak

Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak New-Caledonia > Tiabet et Koumac I. Bril
 

Nemi

Nemi New-Caledonia > Hienghene F. Ozanne-Rivierre
 

Nengone

Nengone New-Caledonia > Loyalty > Maré S. Bearune
 

Numèè

Numee New-Caledonia > Île des Pins J.-C. Rivierre,
F. Wacalie
 

Nyelâyu

Nyâlayu New-Caledonia > Balade F. Ozanne-Rivierre
 

Paicî

Paicî New-Caledonia > Ponerihouen I. Leblic,
J.-C. Rivierre
 

Pije

Pije New-Caledonia > Hienghène F. Ozanne-Rivierre,
J.-C. Rivierre
 

Voh-Kone Languages

Voh-Kone J.-C. Rivierre
 

West Uvean

Uvean, West New-Caledonia > Loyalty > Ouvea A. Djoupa, I. Leblic,
C. Moyse-Faurie, F. Ozanne-Rivierre
 

Xârâcùù

Xârâcùù New-Caledonia > Thio-Canala C. Moyse-Faurie
 

Xârâgùrè

Xaragure New-Caledonia > Thio-Borindi C. Moyse-Faurie
 

Zuanga - Yuanga

Yuaga New-Caledonia I. Bril
Oceania > Palaos to up

Palauan

Palauan Palau (Rep. of —) A. Lemaréchal
Oceania > Solomon Islands

Lovono

Vano Solomon Islands > Vanikoro A. François
 

Tanema

Tanema Solomon Islands > Vanikoro A. François
 

Teanu

Teanu Solomon Islands > Vanikoro A. François
 

Tikopia

Tikopia Îles Salomon > Temotu > Tikopia A. François
Oceania > Vanuatu to up

Araki

Araki Vanuatu > Espiritu Santo A. François
 

Big Bay (or Tolomako)

Tolomako Vanuatu > Espiritu Santo B. Touati
 

Dorig

Dorig Vanuatu > Banks > Gaua A. François
 

Hiw

Hiw Vanuatu > Torres > Hiw A. François
 

Koro

Koro Vanuatu > Banks > Gaua A. François
 

Lakon

Lakon Vanuatu > Banks > Gaua A. François
 

Lehali

Lehali Vanuatu > Banks > Ureparapara A. François

Lemerig

Lemerig Vanuatu > Banks > Vanua Lava A. François
 

Lo-Toga

Toga Vanuatu >Torres > Lo & Toga A. François
 

Löyöp

Löyöp Vanuatu > Banks > Ureparapara A. François
 

Malakula Languages

Vanuatu > Malakula J.-M. Charpentier
 

Mota

Mota Vanuatu > Banks > Mota A. François
 

Mwerlap

Merlav Vanuatu > Banks > Mota Lava A. François
 

Mwesen

Mosina Vanuatu > Banks > Vanua Lava A. François
 

Mwotlap

Motlav Vanuatu > Banks > Mota Lava A. François
to up

Nume

Nume Vanuatu > Banks > Gaua A. François
 

Olrat

Olrat Vanuatu > Banks > Gaua A. François
 

Sakao (or Nekep or Wanohe)

Sakao Vanuatu > Espiritu Santo > NE B. Touati
 

Sungwadia

Maewo, Central Vanuatu, North Maewo A. Henri
 

Tholp (ou Lorethiakarkar ou Nethalp)

Lorediakarkar Vanuatu > Espiritu Santo > NE B. Touati
 

Vera'a

Vera'a Vanuatu > Banks > Vanua Lava A. François
 

Volow

Motlav Vanuatu > Banks > Mota Lava A. François
 

Vurës

Mosina Vanuatu > Banks > Vanua Lava A. François
Oceania > Wallis & Futuna

East Futunan

Futuna, East Wallis & Futuna > Futuna C. Moyse-Faurie
 

East Uvean

Wallisian Wallis & Futuna > Wallis C. Moyse-Faurie
Taiwan (Formosa)

North-Amis

Amis Taiwan(Formosa) I. Bril
BASQUE LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
 

Basque

Basque Spain, France G. Rebuschi
LANGUAGES OF THE CAUCASUS to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Kartvelian (South Caucasian)

Laz

Laz Turkey R. Lacroix
North-Caucasian

Abzakh

Adyghe Serbia N. Batouka,
R. Gsell,
C. Paris
 

Bjedug

Adyghe Russia A. Gadagatl',
C. Paris
 

Chechen

Chechen Russia F. Guérin
 

Ingush

Ingush Russia F. Guérin
 

Shapsug

Adyghe Turkey C. Paris
 

Ubykh

Ubykh Turkey G. Dumézil
DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
 

Badaga

Badaga India C. Pilot-Raichoor
 

Tamil

Tamil India >Tamil Nadu, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka A. Murugaiyan, E. Sethupathy
ESKIMO-ALEUT LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Inuit

Inuktitut

Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian Canada > Baffin North > Nunavut M.-A. Mahieu,
V. Randa
LANGUES HMONG-MIEN to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Hmongic

Mopiu

? (cf. Hmongic group) Vietnam > Lao Caï > Van Ban A. Vittrant
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
 

Late Latin

Latin   F. Quinsat
Albanian

Albanian

Albanian, Tosk Albania T. Plangarica
  Arvanitika Albanian, Arvanitika Greece E. Valma
Celtic

Breton

Breton France > Brittany > Morbihan A.-M. Despringre,
N. Guezennec
Germanic

English (Trinidad)

English Trinidad & Tobago B. Masquelier
 

Vlaams

Vlaams France, Belgium A.-M. Despringre
Greek

Greek

Greek Greece, Bulgaria E. Valma
Indo-Aryan

Bengali

Bengali Bangladesh, India > West Bengal P. Mukherjee
 

Kashmiri

Kashmiri India E. Del Bon
 

Nepali

Nepali Nepal B. Michailovsky
 

Romani

Romani, Vlax Greece, Mexico E. Adamou
Indo-Iranian

Kurdish

Central Kurdish Iran E. Öpengin

Romance to up

Acadian

French Canada > Acadia J.-M. Charpentier
 

French

French France L. Bellahsene, I. Choi-Jonin, F. Guérin, N. Guezennec, N. Mtavangu, F. Quinsat
 

Franco-Provençal

Franco-Provençal France > Alpes & Haut-Jura J. Delorme,
A.-M. Despringre
 

Gallo

French France > Haute-Bretagne A.-M. Despringre
 

Lorrain dialect

French France > East S. Mougin
 

Macanese

Macanese China > Macau J.-M. Charpentier
 

Occitan

Occitan France > Limousin A.-M. Despringre, H. Schmitt
 

Old French

French France G. Rebuschi
 

Picard

Picard France > Picardie A.-M. Despringre
 

Poitevin-Saintongeais dialect

French France > Vendée (+ Poitou?) A.-M. Despringre, S. Mougin
 

Romanian

Romanian Romania > Maramureş M. Lebarbier
 

Spanish

Spanish Argentina P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi
 

Valaque

Romanian Serbia M. Petrovic-Rignault
Slavic to up

Bulgarian

Bulgarian Bulgaria Z. Guentchéva,
Y. Kozareva,
A. Popova
 

Nashta

Macedonian Greece E. Adamou
  Polish Polish Poland P. Matera,
A. Matsumoto
 

Pomak

Greece E. Adamou
  Russian Russian Russia P. Matera
 

Serbian

Serbian Serbia M. Petrovic-Rignault
  Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian   P. Matera
NATIVE-AMERICAN LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)

Arawak

Yucuna

Yucuna Colombia L. Fontaine

Carib

Wayana

Wayana French Guyana H. Rivière
Guarani

Pilagá

Pilagá Argentina P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi
Otomanguean

Ixcatec

Ixcatec Mexico E. Adamou
Quechua

Quichua

Quichua, Santiago del Estero Argentina P.I. Kirtchuk-Halevi

Tucanoan

Tanimuca

Tanimuca-Retuarã Colombia L. Fontaine

Tupi

Guarani

Guaraní, Paraguayan Paraguay J.-P. Caprile
NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Adamawa-Ubangi

Baka

Baka Cameroon, Congo-Brazza > North J.M.C. Thomas
 

Gbanziri & Buraka

Gbanziri & Buraka
Central African Republic M.-F. Rombi, J.M.C. Thomas
 

Manza

Manza Central African Republic L. Bouquiaux
 

Monzombo

Monzombo Central African Republic, Congo-Brazza L. Bouquiaux, J.M.C. Thomas
 

Ngbaka Ma'bo

Ngbaka Ma'bo Central African Republic J.M.C.Thomas
 

Sango

Sango Central African Republic L. Bouquiaux
Atlantic

Baïnouk

Bainouk-Gunyaamolo Senegal > Casamance S. Sauvageot
Bantoid < Mambiloid

Vute

Vute Cameroon G. Guarisma
Bantoid < Grassfields Bantu

Bafut

Bafut Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Bagangu

Ngemba Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Mankon

Ngemba Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Mbam-Nkam Languages

Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Mberewi

Ngemba Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Mbui

Bambili-Bambui Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Mbwe'wi

Awing Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Ngemba languages (Mbam-Nkam)

Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Nkwen

Mendankwe-Nkwen Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Pinyin

Pinyin Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
 

Yamba

Yamba Cameroon > North-West J. Leroy
Bantoid < Bantu to up

A50 - Bafia

Bafia Cameroon G. Guarisma
 

A60 - Nukalone, Nugunu

Nugunu Cameroon C. Paulian
 

A70 - Ewondo

Ewondo Central African Republic L. Bouquiaux
 

A83 - Shiwa

  Gabon R. Ollomo Ella
 

B70 - Kiküküa

Teke-Tege Congo-Brazzaville C. Paulian
 

B70 - Ngungwel

Teke-Tege Congo-Brazzaville C. Paulian
 

C10 - Yaka

Yaka Central African Republic J.M.C. Thomas
 

C10 - Ngando

Ngando Central African Republic L. Bouquiaux, J.M.C. Thomas
 

C20 - Mbati

Mbati Central African Republic L. Bouquiaux, J.M.C. Thomas
 

C40 - Lingala

Lingala Congo-Kinshasa A. Anakesa
 

F30 - Ihanzu

Nilamba Tanzania > Singida M. Dunham
 

F30 - Langi

Langi Tanzania > Kondoa M. Dunham
 

F30 - Mbugwe

Mbugwe Tanzania > Babati M. Dunham
 

F30 - Nyilamba

Nilamba Tanzania > Singida M. Dunham
 

G40 - Swahili

Swahili Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania > Zanzibar J.d.D. Karangwa, F. Le Guennec-Coppens,
N. Mtavangu
O. Issa, G. Rebuschi,
M.-F. Rombi
 

G40 - Kikae / Kihadimu

Swahili Tanzania > Zanzibar O. Issa
 

G40 - Ngazidja

Comorian, Ngazidja Comoro Islands > Grande-Comore or Ngazidja M.-F. Rombi
 

G40 - Maore

Maore Comoro Islands > Mayotte M.-F. Rombi
 

S60 - Chopi

Chopi Mozambique M.-F. Rombi
Gur to up

Gurune

Farefare Ghana K.S. Kabore
 

Moore

Mòoré Burkina Faso K.S. Kabore
Mande < Manding < Bamana

Bamanakan

Bamanankan Mali J. Ogier-Guindo
 

Jula

Jula Burkina Faso J. Ogier-Guindo
Plateau

Berom

Berom Nigeria L. Bouquiaux
NILO-SAHARAN LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Songhai

Kwarandzyey

Korandje Algeria L. Souag
SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Chinese

Chinese

Chinese, Mandarin China, Taiwan A. Anakesa,
M. Coyaud
Tibeto-Burman

Amdo Tibetan

Tibetan, Amdo China > Tibet N. Tournadre
 

Arakanese

Rakhine Burma or Myanmar > Arakan A. Vittrant
 

Bahing

Bahing Nepal > Okhaldhunga B. Michailovsky
 

Burmese

Burmese Burma or Myanmar S.S. Hnin Tun, A. Vittrant
 

Bumthangkha

Bumthangkha China > Tibet M. Mazaudon, B. Michailovsky
 

Deori

Deori India > Assam F. Jacquesson
 

Dumi

Dumi Nepal B. Michailovsky
 

Dzongkha (Tibetan)

Dzongkha Nepal B. Michailovsky
 

Hill Kachari

Dimasa India > Assam F. Jacquesson
 

Japhug

Japhug Chine > Sichuan G. Jacques (CRLAO)
 

Khams Tibetan

Tibetan, Khams China > Tibet N. Tournadre
to up

Kiranti Languages

Nepal B. Michailovsky
 

Kokborok

Kok Borok India > Tripura F. Jacquesson
 

Koyi Rai

Koi Nepal A. Lahaussois
 

Laze (Naxi)

Naxi China A. Michaud
 

Limbu

Limbu Nepal > Libang B. Michailovsky
 

Marpha (Thakali)

Thakali Nepal M. Mazaudon
 

Mizo (Kuki-Chin)

Mizo India > Mizoram E. Hillard
 

Na

Na China > Yunnan A. Michaud
 

Naxi

Naxi China > Yunnan A. Michaud
 

Prinmi

Prinmi Chine > Muli G. Jacques (CRLAO)
 

Shertukpen

Sherdukpen India > Arunachal Pradesh F. Jacquesson
 

Sherpa

Sherpa Nepal G. Oisel
 

Syang (Thakali)

Thakali Nepal M. Mazaudon
 

Tamang

Tamang, Eastern Nepal > Risiangku and Usatpa M. Mazaudon
 

Thulung Rai

Thulung Nepal A. Lahaussois
 

Tibetan

Tibetan, Central China > Tibet M. Mazaudon,
G. Oisel,
N. Tournadre, Z. Vokurkova
 

Wayu

Wayu Nepal > Murajor B. Michailovsky
 

Zeliangrong (South Naga) (Naga, Zeme?)

Naga, Zeme ?? India > Assam and Nagaland F. Jacquesson
TAI-KADAI LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
 

Muang

Thai, Northern Thailand M. Coyaud
 

Thai

Thai Thailand J. Achariyayos,
M. Coyaud
URALIC LANGUAGES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
Fennic

Finnish

Finnish Finland M.M.J. Fernandez-Vest
M.-A. Mahieu
CREOLES to up
Group Languages Ethnologue Ref. Country Researcher(s)
English Creoles

English Creoles

English Trinidad & Tobago B. Masquelier
 

Bislama (English Creole)

Bislama Vanuatu J.-M. Charpentier
A. François
 

Tok Pisin

Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea A. François

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